Cosmic ray / Gamma ray / Neutrino and similar experiments
Cosmic-ray and gamma-ray experiments
Some missions/experiments proposed or under development:
ACE [Advanced Composition
Explorer] Mission mainly for solar particles; launched in August 1997 (see
also the NASA ACE page)
AMS [Alpha Magnetic
Spectrometer] Detector to be flown on the International
[Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics] (X-ray mission but
with some cosmic-ray relevant results, see also here)
BeppoSAX [Satellite per Astronomia
Chandra X-ray satellite
CGRO [Compton Gamma Ray
Observatory] (mission terminated) with the four experiments:
BATSE [Burst And
Transient Source Experiment]
Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment]
Compton telescope] (also here)
Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope]
the Earth's magnetotail)
satellite with several experiments (SIGMA, WATCH and others) was turned
off November 27, 1998
d'Imagerie Gamma à Masque Aléatoire]
Transient Experiment] (launch failed on 4 Nov. 1996) has a follow-up:
HETE-2 (launched October 9,
[INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory] (future mission; to be
launched in 2001)
the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere)
X-ray satellite (ended February 12, 1999)
X-ray Timing Explorer]
Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer]
is a future mission (see also here
interplanetary space at high solar latitudes)
(two spacecrafts heading towards interstellar space)
WIND (explores solar
wind and plasma processes near the earth as well as gamma-ray bursts)
XMM-Newton [X-ray Multi-mirror
Mission] (see also pages
For a comprehensive list of high-energy astrophysics missions see here.
[Advanded Cosmic ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station] (see
also pages at U.
of Chicago, U. of Maryland,
Gamma a Immagini LEggero] (a light-weight gamma-ray imager)
Energy Gamma Ray Observatory]
Andromeda (a coded-aperture
BLAST [Burst Locations
with an Arc Second Telescope]
EUSO [Extreme Universe
Space Observatory ] (see also under fluorescence
GLAST [Gamma ray Large Area
Space Telescope] (see also NASA
INCA [Ionization - Neutron
[Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy]
OWL [Orbiting Wide-angle Light-collectors]
(see also under fluorescence experiments)
spectrometer, to be launched from Baikonur in 2002)
coded-mask gamma-ray instrument proposed for the space station)
See also the NASA
links to balloon instruments.
ATIC [Advanced Thin Ionization
[Balloon-borne Experiment with a superconducting Solenoid Spectrometer]
[Balloon borne Electron Telescope with Scintillating fibers]
[Cosmic AntiParticle Ring Imaging Cherenkov Experiment] (see also here)
Arcminute Telescope Imaging System]
GRIP [Gamma Ray
[Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer]
Energy Antimatter Telescope]
[High Resolution Gamma-Ray and Hard X-Ray Spectrometer] (see also here).
IMAX [Isotope Matter
Antimatter Experiment] (see also here
Collaborative Emulsion Experiment]
(mainly for cosmic-ray composition up to several hundred TeV)
Antimatter Superconducting Spectrometer] (flown in different configurations;
for MASS2 see also here)
RUNJOB [RUssian-Nippon JOint Balloon
[Superconducting Magnet Instrument for Light Isotopes]
TIGRE [Tracking and Imaging Gamma Ray
Experiment] (under development)
LXeGRIT (a Liquid
Xenon Gamma-Ray Imaging Telescope )
Atmospheric Cherenkov experiments (see
Telescopes and telescope systems:
New telescope projects:
(four-telescope extension of CANGAROO-II).
H.E.S.S. [High Energy
Stereoscopic System] (under construction in Namibia, see
also pages from Paris)
MAGIC (a 17 m telescope to be
built on La Palma)
VERITAS [Very Energetic Radiation
Imaging Telescope Array System]
Solar power facilities as light collectors:
[CErenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment] at Thémis,
GRAAL [Gamma-Ray Astronomy
at ALmeria] near Almeria, Spain
STACEE [Solar Tower Air
Cherenkov Experiment] at Sandia Labs, New Mexico
Solar Two Observatory
at the Solar Two facility, California
Cherenkov counter arrays:
AIROBICC (non-imaging counters in the HEGRA
[Broad LAteral Non-imaging C(h)erenkov Array] (at CASA,
TUNKA-13 (array of non-imaging counters
near Lake Baikal)
Other Cherenkov light detection concepts:
SPHERE (a balloon
project looking for light reflected on snow)
Atmospheric fluorescence experiments
programme for a space experiment observing air shower fluorescence light.)
See also EUSO and OWL.
Project Fluorescence Group
[Extreme Universe Space Observatory ] (a proposed space experiment on ISS
to observe air shower fluorescence light).
HiRes The High Resolution
Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector
(see also HiRes home pages at Adelaide
Wide-angle Light collectors] (a plan to build a pair of satellites for
air shower detection).
See also pages in Huntsville.
Telescope Array (for Cherenkov
and fluorescence light).
Air shower experiments with particle detectors
AGASA [Akeno Giant
Air Shower Array]
new experiment under construction in Tibet
Core Experiment] (Sydney, operational 1989-1991)
Park Extensive Air Shower Array (Australia) (operational
Air Shower Array] (operational 1990-1998)
CRT [Cosmic Ray Tracking]
(prototypes, operational 1992-1996)
experiment (Italy, above the Gran
Sasso underground laboratory)
(former experiment of Leeds University, operational until
GRAND [Gamma Ray Astrophysics at
Notre Dame] (an array of tracking detectors)
GREX [Gamma Ray
Experiment] array (Haverah Park, operational 1986-1995)
HEGRA [High Energy
Gamma Ray Astronomy] (see also here)
Shower Core and Array DEtector]
Cherenkov experiment near Los Alamos). See also related
pages at LANL.
Observatory in Japan
Pierre Auger Project (originally
also known as the Giant Airshower Detector Project). The administrative
page is now here .
See also the pages at/in/by Utah,
CNRS (central French Auger site), Leeds,
Michigan Tech U.,
and more than 30 others.
[South Pole Air Shower Array]
[Sydney University Giant Air shower Recorder] (was operational
from 1968 to 1979)
Mountain Cosmic Ray Station (pages by Lebedev Institute)
Tibet AS-gamma experiment
pages for pictures)
Other ground-based cosmic-ray experiments
ALTA Alberta Large area
Time coincidence Array
Ray Observatory Project] (high school project in Nebraska)
of Adelaide Cosmic Ray Muon Monitor
Large Area Time coincidence Array] (university + schools project)
WILLI (muon charge
ratio measurement in Bucharest, Romania). Apparently unavailable
High-energy neutrino and underground muon experiments
Neutrino experiments at particle accelerators
(including long-baseline neutrino beams)
BooNE [Booster Neutrino
Experiment]: planned experiment at Fermilab
CHORUS [CERN Hybrid
Oscillation Research apparatUS]: experiment at CERN
[COsmologically Significant Mass Oscillation Search]: Experiment E803 at
Rutherford Intermediate Energy Neutrino Experiment]
KEK-PS E362 (K2K: KEK to Kamioka)
New long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment from KEK
PS to SuperKamiokande
LSND [Liquid Scintillator
Neutrino Detector] at Los
Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search] Future experiment with neutrino beam
from FNAL to Soudan.
Oscillation Experiment]: planned CERN to Gran Sasso long-baseline experiment.
NOMAD [Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic
Detector] experiment at CERN.
NuTeV (Fermilab experiment
E815, measures mainly sin2thetaw).
[Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus]: proposed CERN to
Gran Sasso long-baseline experiment.
TAU (Fermilab experiment E 872)
TOSCA [Topological Oscillation
Search with kinematiCal Analysis]: intended CERN short-baseline experiment.
Neutrino experiments at reactors
BOREXINO experiment at Gran Sasso
(see also page of Princeton group).
CERN underground muon experiments Cosmics
with L3 and CosmoLEP
at Gran Sasso (see also pages at
Gran Sasso and in Rome).
[Gallium Neutrino Observatory] is the successor project of GALLEX
Various GRAN SASSO experiments [GALLEX,
LVD, MACRO, and others]
HELLAZ [HELium á la
tempèrature de L'AZote liquide] (proposed solar neutrino detector;
see also French page)
Homestake chlorine experiment (no link known).
ICARUS [Imaging Cosmic
And Rare Underground Signal]: Liquid argon TPC detector to be build at
IMB [Irvine Michigan
[Large Volume Detector] at Gran Sasso.
MACRO [Monopole, Astrophysics,
Cosmic Rays] (see also pages
prepared by Boston,
A and M, and Pisa
for Multiflavor NeutrInos from Supernovae]
SAGE [Soviet-American Gallium Experiment] (no link but see this
SNO [Sudbury Neutrino Observatory]
(see also pages at U.
of Washington, U.
of Guelph, and LBNL)
Iron Mine, Minnesota, USA)
(S-K): see also the S-K pages from Seattle
Brook, and Hawaii)
with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch]
neutrino experiment in Lake Baikal, Russia).
DUMAND [Deep Undersea
Muon and Neutrino Detector], prepared by Univ. of Washington participants
(see also the DUMAND page from Hawaii
NEMO [NEutrino subMarine
Observatory] (apparently in early planning phase)
Experiments in Antarctic ice (at the South Pole)
AMANDA [Antarctic Muon and Neutrino
Detector]. (See also the AMANDA page from Wisconsin)
name for a future km3 extension to AMANDA)
RAND [Radio Array
Ice Cerenkov Experiment]
No place decided yet
Other cosmic neutrino experiments
(searching for radio signals from UHE neutrino interactions
in the moon)
Dark matter searches
What is dark matter?
[Cryogenic Dark Matter Search].
Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers], see also here
DArk MAtter searches with low activity scintillators] at Gran Sasso
EDELWEISS [Expérience pour DÉtecter Les WIMPs En SIte Souterrain]
(page no longer available)
Dark Matter Search]
UK-DMC [UK Dark Matter Collaboration,
to other dark matter searches)
Searches for microlensing:
For links to microlensing searches of MACHOs see for example here.
Gravitational wave experiments
Simulation of cosmic ray air-showers
Interpretation of cosmic-ray measurements on the ground or underground
usually requires comparison with simulations of cosmic ray air-showers.
Unfortunately, few of these simulation programs are found on the net.
Note: The KASCADE
program above is not related to the
CORSIKA [COsmic Ray
SImulations for KAscade] Air-shower simulation program (Karlsruhe, Germany)
Electron Gamma Shower (EGS)
web page at LBL (U.S.A.)
simulation codes by K. Kasahara (Japan)
[AIRshower Extended Simulations] at La Plata (Argentina)
simulation program (at DePauw university, U.S.A.)
simulation program by G. Battistoni, M. Carboni, and others.
Hadronic interaction models in air-shower simulation programs
are usually based on programs developed for interactions at accelerator
For a more extensive list of interaction simulation programs used in
high-energy physics see here.
Simulation of the detector response to particles is frequently
done with GEANT
(which, occasionally, is also used for air-shower simulations).
Miscellaneous sites of cosmic-ray and astroparticle
research (sorted by region)
Switzerland (including CERN)
This list is certainly incomplete. Apologies to those not included. Please
me a note.
This section should contain links to educational material and other useful
links for non-experts. This part is new and definitely incomplete. Please
note if you know of outstanding resources in the areas of this list
which are missing here. For general lists of educational resources in astronomy
and astrophysics see, for example, the WWW
See also the NASA
list of high-energy astrophysics sites (mainly satellite experiments).
Many sets of astrophysics or space physics data sets are available from
Space Science Data Center (NSSDC).
The (U.S.) National Geophysical Data Center has a Solar-Terrestrial
Physics Division. Links to heliospheric resources are also provided
by the SHINE affiliation
of researchers, from
and from the Oulu (Finland).
Quite comprehensive lists of astronomy resources on the Internet are
maintained by the AstroWeb
Consortium at NRAO,
and other places. See, for example, the pointers to telescopes,
or to high-energy
astronomy. These are also available from the WWW
The Commission on Cosmic Rays
of the IUPAP (see
also the Cosmic
Ray News Bulletin) maintains a list
of sites and other resources which includes many links from the current
More pointers to information concerning neutrino experiments and relevant
background information are available from Argonne,
(Canada) and Annecy
(France). For up-to-date information see also the Long
Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Newsletters. A review of the history
and many other aspects of neutrino research is provided at LAPP (France).
Note also the collection of material by
Bahcall. Results of various neutrino experiments are collected in Helsinki.
Links to many high-energy
physics experiments at accelerators are provided by SLAC.
A list of high-energy
physics laboratories is available from CERN.
If you are looking for the address of a particular person in one of
the fields covered by this list, then try the the SLAC
HEPNAMES database, the HEP
Virtual Phonebook, the Star*Heads,
or the RGO
organizers of the 26th ICRC (see below) provide a list
of participants, which you could try as well.
The 26th ICRC (International
Cosmic Ray Conference) was in Salt Lake City in August, 1999. The
next one will be held in Hamburg, Germany, in August 2001.
collection of links is maintained by Konrad Bernlöhr at the Max
Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg.
Last changes on May 16, 2001.
Comments and additions to this page are welcome:
to Konrad Bernlöhr